# ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

## INTRODUCTION

Some important questions for ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE that might be helpful for the exam.

These questions are also important for the preparation of the GTU Exam.

NOTE: ALL THIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY MATERIAL IS TAKEN FROM REFERENCES.

## QUESTIONS FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

### Q1. What is AI? Define Properties of AI Problem?

Artificial Intelligent System works like a human brain, where a machine or software shows intelligence while perfoming given tasks; such systems are called Intelligent System.

#### ☸ Properties of AI Problem:-

1. 3 * 3 * 3 Rubik Cube Problem.
1. In Rubik Cube, we have a cube with six color faces.
2. The goal is to arrange all the cuboids in such a way that each other face of cube will show a distinct color.
2. 8 – Puzzle
1. In 8 – Puzzle there are 8 ticks that need to be arranged in a way shown in the goal state.
2. The Condition is only the blank tile can be moved to immediate up-down, right or left positions and the goal state is to be attained in a minimum number of moves.
3. N- Queen Problem
1. In N- Queen, the queens need to be placed on the n*n board, in such a way that no queen can dash the other queen, horizontally, vertically or diagonally.

### Q2. Write a short note on different task domains of AI.

#### ☸ Domains

• Perception
• Vision
• Speech
• Natural Languages
• Understanding
• Generation
• Translation
• Common Sense Reasoning
• Robot Control

• Games: Chess, Checkers, etc;
• Mathematics: Geometry, logic, Proving Properties of Program.

• Engineering
• Scientific Analysis
• Medical Analysis
• Financial Analysis

### Q3. Define State Space or Define AI Problems as a State Space Search.

#### ☸ State Space:

• The State Space of a problem is the set of all states reachable from the initial state by executing any sequence of actions.
• The state is a representation of all possible outcomes.
• The State Space Specifies the relation among various problem states thereby, forming a directed network or graph in which the nodes are shorts and the links between nodes represent actions.
• Searching in a given space of states performing to a problem under consideration is called a State Space Search

#### ☸ Path

• A Path is a sequence of states connected by a sequence of actions in a given State Space.

### Q4. Explain Production System and its Characteristics

#### ☸ Production System

• Production System is a mechanism that describes and performs the search process. It consists of:
• A global database
• A set of Production Rules and
• A Control System
• A Production System consists of rules and factors.
• Knowledge is encoded in a declarative form which comprises a set of rules of the Situation – Action.

#### ☸ Characteristics:

• Monotonic Production System:
• A system in which the application of a rule never prevents the later application of another rule that could have also been applied at the time the first rule was selected.
• Non – Monotonic Production System:
• A Non – Monotonic Production System is one in which this is not true.
• Partially Commutative Production System:
• A Production System in which the application of a particular sequence of rules transforms state X into state Y, that is allowable also transforms state X into state Y.
• Commutative Production System:
• A Commutative Production System is a production system that is a monotonic and partially commutative.

### Q5. Explain BFS and DFS in detail

#### ☸ BFS:-

• BFS visits the nodes level by level.
• It visits the level Zero (root node) First and then moves to the next level.
• BFS uses the queue for implementation.
• It uses FIFO Structure
##### ☸ BFS Algorithm:-
1. Put the root node on a queue.
2. While (Queue is not empty)
• Remove a node from the Queue.
1. If a node is a goal node return Success;
2. Put all children of node onto the queue;
3. Return Failure.

#### ☸ DFS

• DFS Visits the root note first and then visits its children nodes until it reaches the leaf nodes.
• it uses the leaf nodes
• it uses the stack for implementation