Some important questions for ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE that might be helpful for the exam.

These questions are also important for the preparation of the GTU Exam.



Q1. What is AI? Define Properties of AI Problem?

Artificial Intelligent System works like a human brain, where a machine or software shows intelligence while perfoming given tasks; such systems are called Intelligent System.

☸ Properties of AI Problem:-

  1. 3 * 3 * 3 Rubik Cube Problem.
    1. In Rubik Cube, we have a cube with six color faces.
    2. The goal is to arrange all the cuboids in such a way that each other face of cube will show a distinct color.
  2. 8 – Puzzle
    1. In 8 – Puzzle there are 8 ticks that need to be arranged in a way shown in the goal state.
    2. The Condition is only the blank tile can be moved to immediate up-down, right or left positions and the goal state is to be attained in a minimum number of moves.
  3. N- Queen Problem
    1. In N- Queen, the queens need to be placed on the n*n board, in such a way that no queen can dash the other queen, horizontally, vertically or diagonally.

Q2. Write a short note on different task domains of AI.

☸ Domains

  1. Mundane Tasks
  2. Formal Tasks
  3. Expert Tasks
  1. Mundane Tasks
  • Perception
    • Vision
    • Speech
  • Natural Languages
    • Understanding
    • Generation
    • Translation
  • Common Sense Reasoning
  • Robot Control

2. Formal Tasks

  • Games: Chess, Checkers, etc;
  • Mathematics: Geometry, logic, Proving Properties of Program.

3. Expert Tasks

  • Engineering
  • Scientific Analysis
  • Medical Analysis
  • Financial Analysis

Q3. Define State Space or Define AI Problems as a State Space Search.

☸ State Space:

  • The State Space of a problem is the set of all states reachable from the initial state by executing any sequence of actions.
  • The state is a representation of all possible outcomes.
  • The State Space Specifies the relation among various problem states thereby, forming a directed network or graph in which the nodes are shorts and the links between nodes represent actions.

☸ State Space Search:

  • Searching in a given space of states performing to a problem under consideration is called a State Space Search

☸ Path

  • A Path is a sequence of states connected by a sequence of actions in a given State Space.

Q4. Explain Production System and its Characteristics

☸ Production System

  • Production System is a mechanism that describes and performs the search process. It consists of:
    • A global database
    • A set of Production Rules and
    • A Control System
  • A Production System consists of rules and factors.
  • Knowledge is encoded in a declarative form which comprises a set of rules of the Situation – Action.
Partially ComparativeTheorem ProvingRobot Navigates
Not Partially ComparativeChemical SynthesisBridge

☸ Characteristics:

  • Monotonic Production System:
    • A system in which the application of a rule never prevents the later application of another rule that could have also been applied at the time the first rule was selected.
  • Non – Monotonic Production System:
    • A Non – Monotonic Production System is one in which this is not true.
  • Partially Commutative Production System:
    • A Production System in which the application of a particular sequence of rules transforms state X into state Y, that is allowable also transforms state X into state Y.
  • Commutative Production System:
    • A Commutative Production System is a production system that is a monotonic and partially commutative.