Some important questions for ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE that might be helpful for the exam.
These questions are also important for the preparation of the GTU Exam.
NOTE: ALL THIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY MATERIAL IS TAKEN FROM REFERENCES.
QUESTIONS FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Q1. What is AI? Define Properties of AI Problem?
Artificial Intelligent System works like a human brain, where a machine or software shows intelligence while perfoming given tasks; such systems are called Intelligent System.
☸ Properties of AI Problem:-
- 3 * 3 * 3 Rubik Cube Problem.
- In Rubik Cube, we have a cube with six color faces.
- The goal is to arrange all the cuboids in such a way that each other face of cube will show a distinct color.
- 8 – Puzzle
- In 8 – Puzzle there are 8 ticks that need to be arranged in a way shown in the goal state.
- The Condition is only the blank tile can be moved to immediate up-down, right or left positions and the goal state is to be attained in a minimum number of moves.
- N- Queen Problem
- In N- Queen, the queens need to be placed on the n*n board, in such a way that no queen can dash the other queen, horizontally, vertically or diagonally.
Q2. Write a short note on different task domains of AI.
- Mundane Tasks
- Formal Tasks
- Expert Tasks
- Mundane Tasks
- Natural Languages
- Common Sense Reasoning
- Robot Control
2. Formal Tasks
- Games: Chess, Checkers, etc;
- Mathematics: Geometry, logic, Proving Properties of Program.
3. Expert Tasks
- Scientific Analysis
- Medical Analysis
- Financial Analysis
Q3. Define State Space or Define AI Problems as a State Space Search.
☸ State Space:
- The State Space of a problem is the set of all states reachable from the initial state by executing any sequence of actions.
- The state is a representation of all possible outcomes.
- The State Space Specifies the relation among various problem states thereby, forming a directed network or graph in which the nodes are shorts and the links between nodes represent actions.
☸ State Space Search:
- Searching in a given space of states performing to a problem under consideration is called a State Space Search
- A Path is a sequence of states connected by a sequence of actions in a given State Space.
Q4. Explain Production System and its Characteristics
☸ Production System
- Production System is a mechanism that describes and performs the search process. It consists of:
- A global database
- A set of Production Rules and
- A Control System
- A Production System consists of rules and factors.
- Knowledge is encoded in a declarative form which comprises a set of rules of the Situation – Action.
|MONOTONIC||NON – MONOTONIC|
|Partially Comparative||Theorem Proving||Robot Navigates|
|Not Partially Comparative||Chemical Synthesis||Bridge|
- Monotonic Production System:
- A system in which the application of a rule never prevents the later application of another rule that could have also been applied at the time the first rule was selected.
- Non – Monotonic Production System:
- A Non – Monotonic Production System is one in which this is not true.
- Partially Commutative Production System:
- A Production System in which the application of a particular sequence of rules transforms state X into state Y, that is allowable also transforms state X into state Y.
- Commutative Production System:
- A Commutative Production System is a production system that is a monotonic and partially commutative.