system programming :
SYSTEM PROGRAMMING helps to execute the user’s programs on a computer system/hardware.
- Operating System
- Communication Software
SYSTEM PROGRAMMING Characteristics:
- Knowledge of hardware and internal behavior of the computer system
- Uses a low-level programming language
- Requires little run-time overheads
- Executes in a resource-constrained environment
- Has access to system resources, including memory
- Can be written in assembly language
- Limited programming facility is available, which requires excessive abilities for the machine programmer
- Less effective runtime library with much less error-checking skills
MACHINE STRUCTURE IN SYSTEM PROGRAM
There are two types of Machine Structure.
- Von Neumann Architecture
- Harward Architecture
1. Von Neumann Architecture
It describes the general design of a modern digital computer.
The important parts of this architecture are:
- Processing Unit
- Control Unit
2. Harward Architecture
Also based on stored-program computer systems like von Neumann.
|Harvard Architecture||Von Neumaan Architecture|
|1. CPU can both read program instruction and access data from the memory simultaneously.||It does no longer enable each fetching of directions and statistics operations to happen at the identical time.|
|2.Instruction fetches and data access need separate pathways.||Uses a frequent shared bus to get entry to each guidelines and records|
|3. Faster for a given circuit complexity||Shared bus results into performance bottleneck|
|4. Uses separate address space for code and data||Has limited transfer rate between the CPU and memory|
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